Wednesday, October 29, 2008

biodiesel gasoline?

Biodiesel has better lubricating properties than today's lower viscosity diesel fuels. Biodiesel addition reduces engine wear increasing the life of the fuel injection equipment that relies on the fuel for its lubrication, such as high pressure injection pumps, pump injectors (also called unit injectors) and fuel injectors.

The calorific value of biodiesel is about 37.

27 MJ/L.[citation needed] This is 9% lower than regular Number 2 petrodiesel. Variations in biodiesel energy density is more dependent on the feedstock used than the production process. Still these variations are less than for petrodiesel. It has been claimed biodiesel gives better lubricity and more complete combustion th

us increasing the engine energy output and partially compensating for the higher energy density of petrodiesel.

Biodiesel is a liquid which varies in color — between golden and dark brown — depending on the production feedstock. It is immiscible with

water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. *The flash point of biodiesel (>130 °C, >266 °F) is significantly higher than that of petroleum diesel (64 °C, 147 °F) or gasoline (−45 °C, -52 °F). Biodiesel has a density of ~ 0.88 g/cm³, less than that of water.

Biodiesel has a viscosity similar to petrodie

sel, the current industry term for diesel produced from petroleum. Biodiesel has high lubricity and virtually no sulfur content, and it is often used as an additive to Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel.

Biodiesel is made from renewable fats and

oils, such as vegetable oils, through a simple refining process. One of the main commodity sources for biodiesel is soybeans, a major crop produced by almost 400,000 farmers in 29 states.

A variety of oils can be used to produce biod

iesel. These include:

Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005. Approximately 85% of biodiesel production came from the European Union.

In the United States, average retail (at the pu

mp) prices, including Federal and state fuel taxes, of B2/B5 are lower than petroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends are the same a

s petrodiesel. B99 and B100 generally cost more than petrodiesel except where local governments provide a subsidy.

Biodiesel is commonly produced by the tran

sesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even microwave methods.

[cetane, or n-hexadecane (C16H34), typical of diesel fuel.]

EPA Registration and Health Effects


All fuels and fuel additives must be registered with the US EPA and be subjected to the health effects regulations contained within 40 CFR Part 79. Companies must register their individual fuel products with the EPA in order to legally market the product to the public. In order to register their fuel, companies must either complete the health effects testing requirements using their specific fuel, or make arrangements with an entity which has completed the testing, in order to use the other entity’s data. The National Biodiesel Board has completed the required health effects testing on behalf of the biodiesel industry, and has established criteria to make the testing data available to companies seeking to register their biodiesel with the EPA. Any fuel that does not meet ASTM D 6751 is not considered biodiesel and therefore does not fall under the NBB testing umbrella. Adoption of D 6751 by the FTA will assist EPA and the biodiesel industry in preventing unregistered fuels from being illegally sold as biodiesel.

Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used. Using alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester, at the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction. A lipid transesterification production process is used to convert the base oil to the desired esters. Any Free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst. After this processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and can replace it in most current uses.

A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole. However, with the increase in global biodiesel production, the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20% water and catalyst residues) has crashed. Research is being conducted globally to use this glycerol as a chemical building block. One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol Challenge.

Promising Future for Mining Industry

MSHA conducted sampling at 31 mines to evaluate the effectiveness of several different control technologies for diesel particulate matter. These control technologies included, among others, using biodiesel fuel.

Below are the results of the sampling done at the mines using biodiesel:

MSHA entered into a collaborative effort to test DPM emissions and exposures when using various blends of biodiesel fuels in an underground stone mine. The initial study was conducted in two phases: a 20% biodiesel and a 50% biodiesel blend of recycled vegetable oil, each mixed with 100% low sulfur No. 2 standard diesel fuel. Baseline conditions were established using low sulfur No. 2 standard diesel fuel. In a third phase of the study, a 50% blend of new soy biodiesel fuel was tested. Area samples were collected at shafts to assess equipment emissions.

Results indicate that significant reductions in emissions and worker exposure were obtained for all biodiesel mixtures. These reductions were in terms of both elemetnal and total carbon. Preliminary results for the 20% and 50% recycled vegetable oil indicated 30% and 50% reductions in DPM emissions and exposures, respectively. Preliminary results for the tests on the 50% blend of new soy biodiesel fuel showed about a 30% reduction in DPM emissions and exposures.

Following the success of the biodiesel tests at Maysville Mine, Carmeuse requested assistance in continuing the biodiesel optimization testing at their Black River Mine. In this test, two biodiesel blends along with a baseline test were made. For each test, personal exposures and the ine exhaust were tested for two shifts. The two biodiesel blends included a 35% recycled vegetable oil and a 35% blend of new soy oil. Preliminary results for both the 35% reccyled vegetable oil and the 35% blend of new soy biodiesel fuel showed about a 30% reduction in DPM emissions and exposures.

Biodiesel is an obvious candidate for use in marine applications.

Independent tests have found that pure biodiesel is non-toxic, readily biodegradable and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. C16-18 methyl esters are considered biodegradable based on their chemical nature and test data collected for experimentally determined oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production as a percent of calculated theoretical values. C16-18 methyl esters do not show any micro biological inhibition up to 10,000 mg/L.

In tests performed by the University of Idaho, biodiesel in an aqueous solution after 28 days was 95 percent degraded. Diesel fuel was only 40 percent degraded. In a second study done in an aquatic environment (CO2 Evolution), various biodiesel products were 85.5-88.5 percent degraded in 28 days, which is the same rate as sugar (dextrose). Diesel degradation was 26.24 percent.

Biodiesel has a higher flash point - a minimum of 200 degrees versus about 125 degrees Fahrenheit for regular #2 diesel. Biodiesel also offers low-pressure storage at ambient temperatures, handles like diesel and is safer to transport.

Biodiesel blended at a 20 percent rate with petroleum diesel has a lower wear scar than traditional fuel. At the 20 percent blend level, biodiesel shows improved lubricity with low sulfur petroleum diesel containing high or low aromatic levels. Start-up, power, range and cold-weather performance characteristics are similar to diesel. Even low levels of biodiesel (1-5%) with diesel fuel offer superior lubricating properties. Recent test results using the HFRR test showed a reduction in wear scar from 0.61 mm to 0.35 mm using a 1% blend of biodiesel with the base diesel.

Farmers are becoming a strong customer base for biodiesel.

Biodiesel provides an opportunity for farmers to create demand for the crops they grow through on-farm use. Farmers' commitment to biodiesel is reflected in their $25 million investment in the product through checkoff dollars.

The industry has encouraged all farmers to ask their fuel distributors to carry biodiesel in at least a two percent blend (B2). Building demand at a grassroots level is critical to the addition of biodiesel to terminals on a large national scale. Although biodiesel is compatible with existing diesel technology, including diesel tanks and other infrastructure, some petroleum distributors may choose to have separate tanks for biodiesel. Adding those tanks now to meet farmer demand will help ensure that the infrastructure is in place to meet future demand from the general public.

Farmers recognize that biodiesel is a high-quality product to use in their farm equipment. Even low blends of biodiesel like B2 and B5 offer exceptional lubricity, thus slowing engine wear and tear. Plus it is a cleaner-burning fuel that is friendlier to the user and the environment.

Biodiesel for Electrical Generation.

The 6 megawatt biofueled backup power system pictured here was installed for the University of California, Riverside's 2001 pilot program and represented a significant milestone in the effort to reduce emissions from standby emergency generators. As the power crisis in California in 2001 unfolded and forced many facilities to deploy portable diesel generators to protect critical operations against blackouts, Southern States Power Company helped the state reduce harmful emissions that normally are associated with this type of equipment.

Temporary backup petroleum diesel-fueled generators typically operate in emergencies without the benefit of exhaust after-treatment to reduce emissions. Using alternative fuels for these necessary backup power sources is a cost effective method of protecting the environment. Fueled on 100% biodiesel (B100), these generators help reduce emissions compared to petroleum diesel in several key areas. Hydrocarbons, a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone, and sulfur emissions, a major component of acid rain, are essentially eliminated with the use of B100. The exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas, are about 50% lower in biodiesel than carbon monoxide emissions from petroleum diesel. Particulate matter, a human health hazard, is reduced by a third, with the smaller particulates reduced by over two thirds.

The demonstration run of the generators, held in August 2001, clearly showed few signs of the telltale smoke associated with diesel fuel. The operation of the generators was part of the weekly scheduled test run by Riverside Public Utilities to ensure readiness in the case of a blackout.

The three Cummins generators represent the state of the art in compression ignition engine technology, as well as digitally controlled electrical interconnection equipment. Each 16 cylinder, 3,673 cubic inch, 2,922 HP Turbocharged/Low Temperature After-Cooled computer controlled four cycle industrial engine drives a heavy duty brushless four pole permanent magnet type generator capable of outputting up to two million watts of power at 480 volts. Separate transformers for each generator to increase reliability steps up the voltage to match the 12,470 volt electrical grid operated and maintained by Riverside Public Utilities. The three generators, operating at full output, consume almost 450 gallons of fuel per hour. A 55-gallon drum of fuel is consumed in approximately seven minutes. That is the equivalent of half a quart for every second of operation. A Southern States Power Company 5,000 gallon onsite tanker trailer provided enough fuel for over 11 hours of operation. SSPC maintained a local tanker truck with biodiesel ready to roll and replenish emergency generator needs on a 24-hour basis.

Saturday, October 11, 2008

Ethanol gasoline?

Ethanol is considered "renewable" because it is primarily the result of conversion of the sun's energy into usable energy. Creation of ethanol starts with photosynthesis causing the feedstocks such as switchgrass, sugar cane, or corn to grow. These feedstocks are processed into ethanol.

About 5% of the ethanol produced in the world in 2003 was actually a petroleum product. It is made by the catalytic hydration of ethylene with sulfuric acid as the catalyst. It can also be obtained via ethylene or acetylene, from calcium carbide, coal, oil gas, and other sources. Two million tons of petroleum-derived ethanol are produced annually. The principal suppliers are plants in the United States, Europe, and South Africa. Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemically identical to bio-ethanol and can be differentiated only by radiocarbon dating.

In Brazil, flex-fuel vehicles are capable of running on pure ethanol. In the US, tolerance of ethanol depends on the individual vehicle. Anhydrous ethanol can be blended with gasoline in varying quantities to reduce the consumption of petroleum fuels, as well as to reduce air pollution. In Brazil, by law all fuels are at least 25% ethanol.
Ethanol is increasingly used as an oxygenate additive for standard gasoline, as a replacement for methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), the latter chemical being responsible for considerable groundwater and soil contamination. Ethanol can also be used to power fuel cells.
Ethanol derived from crops (bio-ethanol) is a sus
tainable energy resource that offers environmental and long-term economic advantages over fossil fuel (gasoline). It is readily obtained from the starch or sugar in a wide variety of crops. Ethanol fuel production depends on availability of land area, soil, water, and sunlight.

Bio-ethanol is obtained from the conversion of carbon based feedstock. Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun using photosynthesis, provided that all minerals required for growth (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) are returned to the land. Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugar beet, sorghum, grain sorghum, switchgrass, barley, hemp, kenaf, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruit, molasses, corn, stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton, other biomass, as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvestings, whichever has the best well-to-wheel assessment.

Current, first generation processes for the production of ethanol from corn use only a small part of the corn plant: the corn kernels are taken from the corn plant and only the starch, which represents about 50% of the dry kernel mass, is transformed into ethanol. Two types of second generation processes are under development. The first type uses enzymes and yeast to convert the plant cellulose into ethanol while the second type uses pyrolysis to convert the whole plant to either a liquid bio-oil or a syngas. Second generation processes can also be used with plants such as grasses, wood or agricultural waste material such as straw.

Glucose (a simple sugar) is created in the plant by photosynthesis.

6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2

During ethanol fermentation, glucose is decomposed into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

C6H12O6 → 2C2H6O + 2CO2 + heat

During combustion ethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat:

C2H6O + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat

After doubling the ethanol combustion reaction because two molecules of ethanol are produced for each glucose molecule, there are equal numbers of each type of molecule on each side of the equation, and the net reaction for the overall production and consumption of ethanol is just:

light → heat

The heat of the combustion of ethanol is used to drive the piston in the engine by expanding heated gases. It can be said that sunlight is used to run the engine.

Air pollutants are also produced when ethanol is burned in the atmosphere rather than in pure oxygen. Harmful nitrous oxide gases are produced.

According to a 2008 analysis by Iowa State University, the growth in US ethanol production has caused retail gasoline prices to be US $0.29 to US $0.40 per gallon lower than would otherwise have been the case.

When all 200 American ethanol subsidies are considered, they cost about $7 billion USD per year (equal to roughly $1.90 USD total for each a gallon of ethanol). When the price of one agricultural commodity increases, farmers are motivated to quickly shift finite land and water resources to it, away from traditional food crops.

The U.S. has invested more than $1 billion to spur the growth of a strong, sustainable domestic biofuels industry. This investment promises to reduce America's gas consumption by 20 percent within a decade, promoting a cleaner environment and keeping more of our energy dollars right here at home. We continue to aggressively pursue technologies to create advanced biofuels, and we're working diligently on constructing the biofuels section bridge away from oil. On September 24, John Mizroch, acting assistant secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, credited corn-based biofuels production with paving the way for use of "nextgeneration, non-feedstock" sources such as cellulosic energy crops. The oil market continues to fluctuate in dramatic fashion, baffling experts, investors and policy makers. Just last month, gas prices surged in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Ike, and we all experienced sticker shock at the pumps — with some stations in the U.S. charging as much as $5.09 a gallon. IkeÕs destructive force on the Gulf Coast, which represents about 20% of the nation's oil processing capacity, painfully reinforced the effects of supply disruption as well as the limitations we face by spending $1 billion dollars per day on imported oil.

Ethanol can be produced in different ways, using a variety of feedstocks. Brazil uses sugarcane as primary feedstock. More than 90% of the ethanol produced in the U.S. comes from corn. Crops with higher yields of energy, such as switchgrass and sugar cane, are more effective in producing ethanol than corn. Ethanol can also be produced from sweet sorghum, a dryland crop that uses much less water than sugarcane, does not require a tropical climate and produces food and fodder in addition to fuel.
Ethanol is produced by yeast fermentation of the sugar extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets. Subsequent processing is the same as for ethanol from corn. Production of ethanol from sugarcane (sugarcane requires a tropical climate to grow productively) returns about 8 units of energy for each unit expended compared to corn which only returns about 1.34 units of fuel energy for each unit of energy expended. Thus sugarcane nets 7/.34 or about 20 times as much energy as corn. (corn produces an additional 0.33 units of energy in the form of high-protein livestock feed).
For the ethanol to be usable as a fuel, water must be removed. Most of the water is removed by distillation, but the purity is limited to 95-96% due to the formation of a low-boiling water-ethanol azeotrope. The 96% ethanol, 4% water mixture may be used as a fuel, and it's called hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel (álcool etílico hidratado combustível, or AEHC in Portuguese). In 2002, almost 5 billion liters (1,3 billion gallons) of hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel were produced in Brazil, to be used in ethanol powered vehicles.
For blending with gasoline, purity of 99.5 to 99.9% is required, depending on temperature, to avoid separation. Currently, the most widely used purification method is a physical absorption process using molecular sieves. Another method, azeotropic distillation, is achieved by adding the hydrocarbon benzene which also denatures the ethanol (so no extra methanol/petrol/etc. is needed to render it undrinkable for duty purposes). However, benzene is a powerful carcinogen and so will probably be illegal for this purpose soon.

POET, the largest ethanol producer in the world according to the Renewable Fuels Association, is an established leader in the biorefining industry through project development, design and construction, research and development, plant management, and marketing. The 20-year old company currently operates 25 production facilities in the United States with one more under construction. The company produces and markets more than 1.47 billion gallons of ethanol annually.

The POET Biorefining facilities located in Glenville, Hanlontown, Preston, Lake Crystal, and Bingham Lake, Minn. in conjunction with the Ethanol Promotion and Information Council (EPIC) and Dave Syverson Ford, joined together to give the Devries family a brand new F150 crew cab flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) valued at nearly $36,000 on Tuesday, October 7, 2008 during the filming of the show.

All levels of ethanol-infused fuel emit less carbon monoxide and other greenhouse emissions than standard fuel and meet EPA requirements. However, the higher levels of ethanol available through mid-level blends offer more impressive results. Research is finding that using the ideal ethanol blend for a given vehicle dramatically reduces emissions.

Not only is ethanol generally less expensive than regular gasoline, but it has been shown to increase the gas mileage many non-flex and flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) obtain. Since these alternative fuels are compatible with many of today's vehicles, soon consumers will forego a trip to their local car dealership to save money at the pump... using these new mid-level ethanol blends will mean paying less to drive farther.

For vehicles with current design flexible fuel engines, fuel economy (measured as miles per gallon (MPG), or liters per 100km) is directly proportional to energy content. Ethanol contains approx. 34% less energy per gallon than gasoline, and therefore will get 34% fewer miles per gallon. For E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline), the effect is small (~3%) when compared to conventional gasoline, and even smaller (1-2%) when compared to oxygenated and reformulated blends. However, for E85 (85% ethanol), the effect becomes significant. E85 will produce approximately 27% lower mileage than gasoline, and will require more frequent refueling. Actual performance may vary depending on the vehicle.

Fuel system design must be compatible with the percent of ethanol permitted. All current production spark ignition vehicles are designed to be compatible with up to 10% ethanol. Pure ethanol reacts with or dissolves certain rubber and plastic materials and must not be used in fuel systems that are not designed for it.
Pure ethanol has a much higher octane rating (116 AKI, 129 RON) than ordinary gasoline (86/87 AKI, 91/92 RON), allowing higher compression ratio and different spark timing for improved performance. To change a pure-gasoline-fueled car into a pure-ethanol-fueled car, larger carburetor jets (about 30-40% larger by area), or fuel injectors are needed. (Methanol requires an even larger increase in area, to roughly 50% larger.)
In many countries cars are mandated to run on mixtures of ethanol. Brazil requires cars be suitable for a 25% ethanol blend, and has required various mixtures between 22% and 25% ethanol. The United States allows up to 10% blends, and some states require this (or a smaller amount) in all gasoline sold. Other countries have adopted their own requirements. Because of this requirement it is speculated that all cars can run blends up to about 30% (so that manufactures do not have to stock parts incompatible with ethanol next to parts compatible), but it is not known if this is true.

Sunday, October 5, 2008

Paris Motor Show 2008

wow...... Paris motor show 2008........

The Paris Motor Show will take place from 4 to 19 October 2008.

The Paris Motor Show will open :
Tuesday to Friday : 10am - 10pm
Saturday to monday 10am - 8pm

Tickets at the entrance :
Ticket (more 18 years old) : 12€
Ticket child age of 10 to 18 : 6 €
Children under age of 10 : free
Works council group (from 15 tickets) : 10€ / ticket
Tickets availables from 4 to 19 october 2008, one day entry pass.

and the events:

“Electric vehicle” trial track: Sign up at the stand of one of the participating brands and get in the driving seat of an electricity-powered car for a spin on the track, and check out a new, cleaner and quieter way to drive.
Participating brands:
Mitsubishi - Hall 3
Smart - Hall 1
Ecologic Action - Hall 3
SCVE - Hall 3

Disney Pixar Cars event: The celebrated animation firm has chosen our show as the venue in Paris for its European roadshow. Youngsters and parents alike will have an opportunity to be photographed with Lightning McQueen, Sally and Mater, the world-famous, life-size stars of the blockbuster Cars. Loads of prizes and merchandising to be won. Terrace D4 (between Halls 4 and 8).

Special exhibition: “Taxis from around the world”: Escape to Hall 8 to check out a splendid collection of 40 taxis from over 20 countries, from the historical “Taxi de la Marne”, to the celebrated London cab, the exotic tuk-tuk from Thailand, a yellow taxi from the Big Apple, the Toyota Crown from Tokyo with its gloved taxi drivers, through to the PSA taxi of the future brimming with multimedia features. Enjoy your trip!

Concierge service & Tourist info: Do you need a hotel room, info about Paris or help with booking a train or renting a car? Organised with the Paris regional committee, staff will be on hand at stand No. 104 in Hall 2/2, to give information and help you get organised.

Electric karting track: Organised with the FFSA (The French Motor Sports Federation), an indoor electric karting track is available for youngsters aged 14 to 22 in Hall 7/1 from 11.00 am to 7.00 pm.

X BOX event: Are you mad about video games? You want thrills without spills? Come to the X Box 360 stand in Hall 2/1. Loads of prizes to be won.

Children’s day-care unit: Organised in partnership with Disney Pixar. Drop off your children aged 4 to 10 for completely safe, free day-care from 11.00 am to 7.00 pm, in Hall 2/2. A baby-care area is also available.

more information: