Thursday, December 18, 2008
An intercooler, or charge air cooler, is an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchange device used on turbocharged and supercharged (forced induction) internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through isochoric cooling. A decrease in air intake temperature provides a denser intake charge to the engine and allows more air and fuel to be combusted per engine cycle, increasing the output of the engine.
The inter prefix in the device name originates from historic compressor designs. In the past, aircraft engines were built with charge air coolers that were installed between multiple stages of supercharging, thus the designation of inter. Modern automobile designs are technically designated aftercoolers because of their placement at the end of supercharging chain. This term is now considered archaic in modern automobile terminology since most forced induction vehicles have single-stage superchargers or turbochargers. In a vehicle fitted with two-stage turbocharging, it is possible to have both an intercooler (between the two turbocharger units) and an aftercooler (between the second-stage turbo and the engine). The JCB Dieselmax land speed record-holding car is an example of such a system. In general, an intercooler or aftercooler is said to be a charge air cooler.
Intercoolers can vary dramatically in size, shape, and design, depending on the performance and space requirements of the entire supercharger system. Common spatial designs are front mounted intercoolers (FMIC), top mounted intercoolers (TMIC), hybrid mount intercoolers (HMIC). Each type can be cooled with an air-to-air system, air-to-liquid system, or a combination of both.
Many older turbo-charged cars, such as the Toyota Supra (JZA80 only), Nissan 300ZX Twin Turbo, Nissan 200SX (S13/14/14a/15), Mitsubishi 3000gt, Saab 900, Volkswagen, Audi TT, and Turbo Mitsubishi Eclipse use side-mounted air-to-air intercoolers (SMIC), which are mounted in the front corner of the bumper or in front of one of the wheels. Side-mounted intercoolers are generally smaller, mainly due to space constraints, and sometimes two are used to gain the performance of a larger, single intercooler. Cars such as the Subaru Impreza WRX, MINI Cooper S, Toyota Celica GT-Four, Nissan Pulsar GTI-R, MAZDASPEED3, MAZDASPEED6 and the PSA Peugeot Citroën turbo diesels, use air-to-air top mounted intercoolers (TMIC) located on top of the engine. Air is directed through the intercooler through the use of a hood scoop. In the case of the PSA cars the air intake is the grille above the front bumper, then flows through under-hood ducting. Top mounted intercoolers sometimes suffer from heat diffusion due to proximity with the engine, warming them and reducing their overall efficiency. Some World Rally Championship cars use a reverse-induction system design whereby air is forced through ducts in the front bumper to a horizontally-mounted intercooler.
Wednesday, December 10, 2008
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) developed by the United States Department of Defense. It is the only fully functional GNSS in the world. It uses a constellation of between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, which enable GPS receivers to determine their current location, the time, and their velocity. Its official name is NAVSTAR GPS. Although NAVSTAR is not an acronym, a few backronyms have been created for it. The GPS satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. GPS is often used by civilians as a navigation system.
After Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down in 1983 after straying into the USSR's prohibited airspace, President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making GPS freely available for civilian use as a common good. Since then, GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, scientific uses, and hobbies such as geocaching. Also, the precise time reference is used in many applications including the scientific study of earthquakes. GPS is also a required key synchronization resource of cellular networks, such as the Qualcomm CDMA air interface used by many wireless carriers in a multitude of countries.
The first satellite navigation system, Transit, used by the United States Navy, was first successfully tested in 1960. Using a constellation of five satellites, it could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. In 1967, the U.S. Navy developed the Timation satellite which proved the ability to place accurate clocks in space, a technology that GPS relies upon. In the 1970s, the ground-based Omega Navigation System, based on signal phase comparison, became the first worldwide radio navigation system. The design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator developed in the early 1940s, and used during World War II. Additional inspiration for the GPS came when the Soviet Union launched the first Sputnik in 1957. A team of U.S. scientists led by Dr. Richard B. Kershner were monitoring Sputnik's radio transmissions. They discovered that, because of the Doppler effect, the frequency of the signal being transmitted by Sputnik was higher as the satellite approached, and lower as it continued away from them. They realized that since they knew their exact location on the globe, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit by measuring the Doppler distortion.
Tuesday, December 2, 2008
Prof Mitchell expects we will share cars that will be easier to drive in congested cities, will be pollution-free and can be customised at will.
The city car concept, with styling input by architect Frank Gehry, will be completed and delivered by MIT to General Motors early next year.
"Primarily we're interested in urban living," says Ryan Chin, an architect and engineer at MIT's media lab and a member of Prof Mitchell's research group. "Everything scales down from what we think the city of the future is."
The Smart Cities group focused on how cars could be better adapted to get round familiar problems of city life, namely congestion, pollution and parking. Motor companies are well aware of the issue. But the group felt the companies had missed the point, even with city cars such as the Smart, the iconic two-passenger cars introduced by Swatch and Mercedes in 1998.
"We have to think of city cars as not just small-footprint vehicles that can squeeze into tight spaces but ones that can work in unison and also be almost like a parasite that leeches on to mass-transit systems," says Mr Chin. While Smart changed the way people think about parking and size, the MIT engineers felt that, as it had not been widely adopted and congestion and pollution problems had got no better, its success had been limited.
So the MIT team started from scratch to come up with their own concept: a stackable, shareable, electric, two-passenger car. "Imagine a shopping cart - a vehicle that can stack - you can take the first vehicle out of a stack and off you go," says Mr Chin. "These stacks would be placed throughout the city. A good place would be outside a subway station or a bus line or an airport, places where there's a convergence of transportation lines and people."
The precedent for this type of shared personal transport is demonstrated with bicycle-sharing schemes in European towns and the ZipCar and FlexCar projects on the east and west coasts of the US respectively.
The MIT concept car is a complete re-think of vehicle technology. For a start, there is no engine, at least in the traditional sense. The power comes from devices called wheel robots. "These are self-contained wheel units that have electric motors inside," says Mr Chin. "The interesting thing is that the wheel can turn a full 360 degrees so you can have omni-directional wheel movements. You can rotate the car while you're moving, any direction can be front or back and you can do things like crabbing or translate sideways. It's almost like you imagine yourself driving a computer chair."
The wheel robots, complete with their own suspension, remove the need for a drive shaft and even the engine block, freeing up designers to make new use of the space in the car.
"Essentially the car will comprise four wheel-robots plus a customisable chassis," says Chin. "The frame can be built specifically for each customer."
Add wafer-thin, programmable displays that cover the interior and exterior of the car like a layer of paint, and you have a vehicle that can be customised at will. "You can imagine signalling being not just a static signal light but something more dynamic," says Mr Chin, who suggests the words "reversing" or "turning left" could roll across the car's body to declare the driver's intentions. "From a heating and cooling point of view, you might want your car to be darker or lighter depending on weather. On the interior, you can customise your dashboard for each person. If I'm an elderly person, I probably want a very large speedometer so I can see it; if I'm a race-car driver, maybe all I want is a tachometer."
The close proximity of cars in cities increases the risk of accidents, and the MIT car has a host of radical ideas to deal with this problem. Chief safety features include responsive seats that do away with the need for seat belts and air bags: these are based around a spine at the back of the seat with a number of "fingers" to embrace a passenger and hold them in place if the car detects that it is involved in an accident. And the cabin would absorb the impacts of crashes using new materials. "There is a new development in fluids that can be magnetised so that they move from liquid to solid state within a nanosecond. You can imagine using these fluids as a way of absorbing energy in an impact."
Over the next few months the MIT team will complete the final design and present their results to General Motors, which will build the first prototype. Beyond that, Mr Chin is already trying to arrange a public test in the Far East. "We might do this in Hong Kong or in Singapore," he says. "The interest in those places is that they are very dense, have mass transit and limited range. An island like Hong Kong would be a perfect place to test this because you have all those conditions."
Whether the city car concept appears on garage forecourts as designed by the Smart Cities group or whether the technologies are taken forward individually remains to be seen. Chin says the group would be happy with either outcome.
Wednesday, November 19, 2008
image of Prius (one of Toyota's top sellers in the United States). There are over 1 million worldwide
An electric car is a type of alternative fuel car that utilizes electric motors and motor controllers instead of an internal combustion engine (ICE). The electric power is usually derived from battery packs in the vehicle.
In general terms an electric car is a rechargeable battery electric vehicle. Other examples of rechargeable electric vehicles are ones that store electricity in ultracapacitors, or in a flywheel.
Vehicles using both electric motors and other types of engine are known as hybrid electric vehicles and are not considered pure electric vehicles (EVs) because they operate in a charge-sustaining mode. Hybrid vehicles with batteries that can be charged externally to displace are called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and are pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs) during their charge-depleting mode. Electric vehicles include automobiles, light trucks, and neighborhood electric vehicles.
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a hybrid vehicle which combines a conventional propulsion system with a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) to achieve better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle. It includes a propulsion system additional to the electric motors, to be not hampered by range from a charging unit like a battery electric vehicle (BEV).
Modern mass-produced HEVs prolong the charge on their batteries by capturing kinetic energy via regenerative braking, and some HEVs can use the internal combustion engine (ICE) to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (often a motor-generator) to either recharge the battery or directly feed power to an electric motor that drives the vehicle. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed (start-stop system). An HEV's engine is smaller than a non-hybrid petroleum fuel vehicle and may be run at various speeds, providing more efficiency.
HEVs became widely available to the public in the late 1990s with the introduction of the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius. HEVs are viewed by some automakers as a core segment of the future automotive market. Futurist magazine recently included hybrid electric vehicles as cars of the near future.
Friday, November 7, 2008
Barack Obama doesn't think much of John McCain's $300 million Clean Car Challenge, treating it as if it's some new reality show on the Discovery Channel masquerading as energy policy, his energy policy and greenhouse credits policy will serve to enable us to swap our cars and air conditioners with China and India for thier bicyles, horses and carts.
Over the longer term, we know that the amount of fuel we will use is directly related to our land use decisions and development patterns, much of which have been organized around the principle of cheap gasoline. Barack Obama believes that we must move beyond our simple fixation of investing so many of our transportation dollars in serving drivers and that we must make more investments that make it easier for us to walk, bicycle and access other transportation alternatives.
He will “launch” the energy policy that before he began his on off-shore drilling. Interestingly, he’ll push it in Lansing, Michigan, where the oil supply crisis has created dark times for auto manufacturers. According to the AP, Obama’s plan looks long on redistribution and short on real solutions, especially those that will help Michigan’s biggest industry.
Obama says he wants to tax oil companies’ windfall profits and use some of the money to help motorists pay for more expensive gasoline. He says he also wants to use $50 billion to help jump-start job creation and help local communities struggling in the economic downturn.
Obama already has an energy policy on his website, one that has been part of his campaign for months. The word “drill” does not appear anywhere in this policy, even today. The word “oil” never appears in the context of increased domestic production. Instead, Obama refers to “big oil” and the need to reduce our use of oil by 35% over the next twenty years.
How do we get there? Keep inflating those tires, folks:
- Increase Fuel Economy Standards
- Invest in Developing Advanced Vehicles
- Build Biofuel Distribution Infrastructure
- Build More Livable and Sustainable Communities
But of course, one of the biggest contributors to our climate troubles and our energy dependence is oil, and so any plan for the future must drastically reduce our addiction to this dirty, dangerous, and ultimately finite source of energy.
Increasing the production and use of locally grown, renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol offers us an opportunity to produce and use fuels within our region, enhance our nation's security by reducing dependence on fossil fuels and foreign oil, strengthen the Southeastern agricultural economy, and help slow global warming.
Emissions for E85 relative to gasoline:
- 15% reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
- 40% reduction of Carbon Monoxide
- 20% reduction of Particulate Matter
- 10% reduction of Nitrogen Oxides
- 80% reductions of Sulfates
- Lower toxics and hydrocarbons
- Increased acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions
A Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) was passed as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requiring $7.5 billion gallons of renewable fuels to be produced in the United States by 2012. However, the industry has grown at an unprecedented rate. In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act was passed which expanded the RFS to 36 billion gallons by 2022. The new RFS significantly expands the required production of fuel from cellulosic feedstocks and outlines lifecycle greenhouse gas reduction requirements?a critical element to ensure that the industry develops sustainably and without further advancing global warming.
Wednesday, October 29, 2008
Biodiesel has better lubricating properties than today's lower viscosity diesel fuels. Biodiesel addition reduces engine wear increasing the life of the fuel injection equipment that relies on the fuel for its lubrication, such as high pressure injection pumps, pump injectors (also called unit injectors) and fuel injectors.
The calorific value of biodiesel is about 37.
27 MJ/L. This is 9% lower than regular Number 2 petrodiesel. Variations in biodiesel energy density is more dependent on the feedstock used than the production process. Still these variations are less than for petrodiesel. It has been claimed biodiesel gives better lubricity and more complete combustion th
us increasing the engine energy output and partially compensating for the higher energy density of petrodiesel.
Biodiesel is a liquid which varies in color — between golden and dark brown — depending on the production feedstock. It is immiscible with
water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. *The flash point of biodiesel (>130 °C, >266 °F) is significantly higher than that of petroleum diesel (64 °C, 147 °F) or gasoline (−45 °C, -52 °F). Biodiesel has a density of ~ 0.88 g/cm³, less than that of water.
sel, the current industry term for diesel produced from petroleum. Biodiesel has high lubricity and virtually no sulfur content, and it is often used as an additive to Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel.
Biodiesel is made from renewable fats and
oils, such as vegetable oils, through a simple refining process. One of the main commodity sources for biodiesel is soybeans, a major crop produced by almost 400,000 farmers in 29 states.
A variety of oils can be used to produce biod
iesel. These include:
- Virgin oil feedstock; rapeseed and soybean oils are most commonly used, soybean oil alone accounting for about ninety percent of all fuel stocks in the US. It also can be obtained from field pennycress and Jatropha other crops such as mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp (see List of vegetable oils for a more complete list);
- Waste vegetable oil (WVO);
- Animal fats including tallow, lard, yellow grease, chicken fat, and the by-products of the production of Omega-3 fatty acids fr om fish oil.
- Algae, which can be grown using waste materials such as sewage and without displacing land currently used for food production.
Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005. Approximately 85% of biodiesel production came from the European Union.
In the United States, average retail (at the pu
s petrodiesel. B99 and B100 generally cost more than petrodiesel except where local governments provide a subsidy.
Biodiesel is commonly produced by the tran
sesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even microwave methods.
EPA Registration and Health Effects
All fuels and fuel additives must be registered with the US EPA and be subjected to the health effects regulations contained within 40 CFR Part 79. Companies must register their individual fuel products with the EPA in order to legally market the product to the public. In order to register their fuel, companies must either complete the health effects testing requirements using their specific fuel, or make arrangements with an entity which has completed the testing, in order to use the other entity’s data. The National Biodiesel Board has completed the required health effects testing on behalf of the biodiesel industry, and has established criteria to make the testing data available to companies seeking to register their biodiesel with the EPA. Any fuel that does not meet ASTM D 6751 is not considered biodiesel and therefore does not fall under the NBB testing umbrella. Adoption of D 6751 by the FTA will assist EPA and the biodiesel industry in preventing unregistered fuels from being illegally sold as biodiesel.
Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used. Using alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester, at the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction. A lipid transesterification production process is used to convert the base oil to the desired esters. Any Free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst. After this processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and can replace it in most current uses.
A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole. However, with the increase in global biodiesel production, the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20% water and catalyst residues) has crashed. Research is being conducted globally to use this glycerol as a chemical building block. One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol Challenge.
Promising Future for Mining Industry
MSHA conducted sampling at 31 mines to evaluate the effectiveness of several different control technologies for diesel particulate matter. These control technologies included, among others, using biodiesel fuel.
Below are the results of the sampling done at the mines using biodiesel:
Results indicate that significant reductions in emissions and worker exposure were obtained for all biodiesel mixtures. These reductions were in terms of both elemetnal and total carbon. Preliminary results for the 20% and 50% recycled vegetable oil indicated 30% and 50% reductions in DPM emissions and exposures, respectively. Preliminary results for the tests on the 50% blend of new soy biodiesel fuel showed about a 30% reduction in DPM emissions and exposures.
Following the success of the biodiesel tests at Maysville Mine, Carmeuse requested assistance in continuing the biodiesel optimization testing at their Black River Mine. In this test, two biodiesel blends along with a baseline test were made. For each test, personal exposures and the ine exhaust were tested for two shifts. The two biodiesel blends included a 35% recycled vegetable oil and a 35% blend of new soy oil. Preliminary results for both the 35% reccyled vegetable oil and the 35% blend of new soy biodiesel fuel showed about a 30% reduction in DPM emissions and exposures.
Biodiesel is an obvious candidate for use in marine applications.
Independent tests have found that pure biodiesel is non-toxic, readily biodegradable and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. C16-18 methyl esters are considered biodegradable based on their chemical nature and test data collected for experimentally determined oxygen demand and carbon dioxide production as a percent of calculated theoretical values. C16-18 methyl esters do not show any micro biological inhibition up to 10,000 mg/L.
In tests performed by the University of Idaho, biodiesel in an aqueous solution after 28 days was 95 percent degraded. Diesel fuel was only 40 percent degraded. In a second study done in an aquatic environment (CO2 Evolution), various biodiesel products were 85.5-88.5 percent degraded in 28 days, which is the same rate as sugar (dextrose). Diesel degradation was 26.24 percent.
Biodiesel has a higher flash point - a minimum of 200 degrees versus about 125 degrees Fahrenheit for regular #2 diesel. Biodiesel also offers low-pressure storage at ambient temperatures, handles like diesel and is safer to transport.
Biodiesel blended at a 20 percent rate with petroleum diesel has a lower wear scar than traditional fuel. At the 20 percent blend level, biodiesel shows improved lubricity with low sulfur petroleum diesel containing high or low aromatic levels. Start-up, power, range and cold-weather performance characteristics are similar to diesel. Even low levels of biodiesel (1-5%) with diesel fuel offer superior lubricating properties. Recent test results using the HFRR test showed a reduction in wear scar from 0.61 mm to 0.35 mm using a 1% blend of biodiesel with the base diesel.
Farmers are becoming a strong customer base for biodiesel.
Biodiesel provides an opportunity for farmers to create demand for the crops they grow through on-farm use. Farmers' commitment to biodiesel is reflected in their $25 million investment in the product through checkoff dollars.
The industry has encouraged all farmers to ask their fuel distributors to carry biodiesel in at least a two percent blend (B2). Building demand at a grassroots level is critical to the addition of biodiesel to terminals on a large national scale. Although biodiesel is compatible with existing diesel technology, including diesel tanks and other infrastructure, some petroleum distributors may choose to have separate tanks for biodiesel. Adding those tanks now to meet farmer demand will help ensure that the infrastructure is in place to meet future demand from the general public.
Farmers recognize that biodiesel is a high-quality product to use in their farm equipment. Even low blends of biodiesel like B2 and B5 offer exceptional lubricity, thus slowing engine wear and tear. Plus it is a cleaner-burning fuel that is friendlier to the user and the environment.
Biodiesel for Electrical Generation.
The 6 megawatt biofueled backup power system pictured here was installed for the University of California, Riverside's 2001 pilot program and represented a significant milestone in the effort to reduce emissions from standby emergency generators. As the power crisis in California in 2001 unfolded and forced many facilities to deploy portable diesel generators to protect critical operations against blackouts, Southern States Power Company helped the state reduce harmful emissions that normally are associated with this type of equipment.
Temporary backup petroleum diesel-fueled generators typically operate in emergencies without the benefit of exhaust after-treatment to reduce emissions. Using alternative fuels for these necessary backup power sources is a cost effective method of protecting the environment. Fueled on 100% biodiesel (B100), these generators help reduce emissions compared to petroleum diesel in several key areas. Hydrocarbons, a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone, and sulfur emissions, a major component of acid rain, are essentially eliminated with the use of B100. The exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas, are about 50% lower in biodiesel than carbon monoxide emissions from petroleum diesel. Particulate matter, a human health hazard, is reduced by a third, with the smaller particulates reduced by over two thirds.
The demonstration run of the generators, held in August 2001, clearly showed few signs of the telltale smoke associated with diesel fuel. The operation of the generators was part of the weekly scheduled test run by Riverside Public Utilities to ensure readiness in the case of a blackout.
The three Cummins generators represent the state of the art in compression ignition engine technology, as well as digitally controlled electrical interconnection equipment. Each 16 cylinder, 3,673 cubic inch, 2,922 HP Turbocharged/Low Temperature After-Cooled computer controlled four cycle industrial engine drives a heavy duty brushless four pole permanent magnet type generator capable of outputting up to two million watts of power at 480 volts. Separate transformers for each generator to increase reliability steps up the voltage to match the 12,470 volt electrical grid operated and maintained by Riverside Public Utilities. The three generators, operating at full output, consume almost 450 gallons of fuel per hour. A 55-gallon drum of fuel is consumed in approximately seven minutes. That is the equivalent of half a quart for every second of operation. A Southern States Power Company 5,000 gallon onsite tanker trailer provided enough fuel for over 11 hours of operation. SSPC maintained a local tanker truck with biodiesel ready to roll and replenish emergency generator needs on a 24-hour basis.
Saturday, October 11, 2008
Ethanol is considered "renewable" because it is primarily the result of conversion of the sun's energy into usable energy. Creation of ethanol starts with photosynthesis causing the feedstocks such as switchgrass, sugar cane, or corn to grow. These feedstocks are processed into ethanol.
About 5% of the ethanol produced in the world in 2003 was actually a petroleum product. It is made by the catalytic hydration of ethylene with sulfuric acid as the catalyst. It can also be obtained via ethylene or acetylene, from calcium carbide, coal, oil gas, and other sources. Two million tons of petroleum-derived ethanol are produced annually. The principal suppliers are plants in the United States, Europe, and South Africa. Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemically identical to bio-ethanol and can be differentiated only by radiocarbon dating.
In Brazil, flex-fuel vehicles are capable of running on pure ethanol. In the US, tolerance of ethanol depends on the individual vehicle. Anhydrous ethanol can be blended with gasoline in varying quantities to reduce the consumption of petroleum fuels, as well as to reduce air pollution. In Brazil, by law all fuels are at least 25% ethanol.
Ethanol is increasingly used as an oxygenate additive for standard gasoline, as a replacement for methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), the latter chemical being responsible for considerable groundwater and soil contamination. Ethanol can also be used to power fuel cells.
Ethanol derived from crops (bio-ethanol) is a sustainable energy resource that offers environmental and long-term economic advantages over fossil fuel (gasoline). It is readily obtained from the starch or sugar in a wide variety of crops. Ethanol fuel production depends on availability of land area, soil, water, and sunlight.
Bio-ethanol is obtained from the conversion of carbon based feedstock. Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun using photosynthesis, provided that all minerals required for growth (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) are returned to the land. Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugar beet, sorghum, grain sorghum, switchgrass, barley, hemp, kenaf, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruit, molasses, corn, stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton, other biomass, as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvestings, whichever has the best well-to-wheel assessment.
Current, first generation processes for the production of ethanol from corn use only a small part of the corn plant: the corn kernels are taken from the corn plant and only the starch, which represents about 50% of the dry kernel mass, is transformed into ethanol. Two types of second generation processes are under development. The first type uses enzymes and yeast to convert the plant cellulose into ethanol while the second type uses pyrolysis to convert the whole plant to either a liquid bio-oil or a syngas. Second generation processes can also be used with plants such as grasses, wood or agricultural waste material such as straw.
Glucose (a simple sugar) is created in the plant by photosynthesis.
- 6CO2 + 6H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2
- C6H12O6 → 2C2H6O + 2CO2 + heat
After doubling the ethanol combustion reaction because two molecules of ethanol are produced for each glucose molecule, there are equal numbers of each type of molecule on each side of the equation, and the net reaction for the overall production and consumption of ethanol is just:
- light → heat
The heat of the combustion of ethanol is used to drive the piston in the engine by expanding heated gases. It can be said that sunlight is used to run the engine.
Air pollutants are also produced when ethanol is burned in the atmosphere rather than in pure oxygen. Harmful nitrous oxide gases are produced.
According to a 2008 analysis by Iowa State University, the growth in US ethanol production has caused retail gasoline prices to be US $0.29 to US $0.40 per gallon lower than would otherwise have been the case.
When all 200 American ethanol subsidies are considered, they cost about $7 billion USD per year (equal to roughly $1.90 USD total for each a gallon of ethanol). When the price of one agricultural commodity increases, farmers are motivated to quickly shift finite land and water resources to it, away from traditional food crops.
The U.S. has invested more than $1 billion to spur the growth of a strong, sustainable domestic biofuels industry. This investment promises to reduce America's gas consumption by 20 percent within a decade, promoting a cleaner environment and keeping more of our energy dollars right here at home. We continue to aggressively pursue technologies to create advanced biofuels, and we're working diligently on constructing the biofuels section bridge away from oil. On September 24, John Mizroch, acting assistant secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, credited corn-based biofuels production with paving the way for use of "nextgeneration, non-feedstock" sources such as cellulosic energy crops. The oil market continues to fluctuate in dramatic fashion, baffling experts, investors and policy makers. Just last month, gas prices surged in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Ike, and we all experienced sticker shock at the pumps — with some stations in the U.S. charging as much as $5.09 a gallon. IkeÕs destructive force on the Gulf Coast, which represents about 20% of the nation's oil processing capacity, painfully reinforced the effects of supply disruption as well as the limitations we face by spending $1 billion dollars per day on imported oil.
Ethanol can be produced in different ways, using a variety of feedstocks. Brazil uses sugarcane as primary feedstock. More than 90% of the ethanol produced in the U.S. comes from corn. Crops with higher yields of energy, such as switchgrass and sugar cane, are more effective in producing ethanol than corn. Ethanol can also be produced from sweet sorghum, a dryland crop that uses much less water than sugarcane, does not require a tropical climate and produces food and fodder in addition to fuel.
Ethanol is produced by yeast fermentation of the sugar extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets. Subsequent processing is the same as for ethanol from corn. Production of ethanol from sugarcane (sugarcane requires a tropical climate to grow productively) returns about 8 units of energy for each unit expended compared to corn which only returns about 1.34 units of fuel energy for each unit of energy expended. Thus sugarcane nets 7/.34 or about 20 times as much energy as corn. (corn produces an additional 0.33 units of energy in the form of high-protein livestock feed).
For the ethanol to be usable as a fuel, water must be removed. Most of the water is removed by distillation, but the purity is limited to 95-96% due to the formation of a low-boiling water-ethanol azeotrope. The 96% ethanol, 4% water mixture may be used as a fuel, and it's called hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel (álcool etílico hidratado combustível, or AEHC in Portuguese). In 2002, almost 5 billion liters (1,3 billion gallons) of hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel were produced in Brazil, to be used in ethanol powered vehicles.
For blending with gasoline, purity of 99.5 to 99.9% is required, depending on temperature, to avoid separation. Currently, the most widely used purification method is a physical absorption process using molecular sieves. Another method, azeotropic distillation, is achieved by adding the hydrocarbon benzene which also denatures the ethanol (so no extra methanol/petrol/etc. is needed to render it undrinkable for duty purposes). However, benzene is a powerful carcinogen and so will probably be illegal for this purpose soon.
POET, the largest ethanol producer in the world according to the Renewable Fuels Association, is an established leader in the biorefining industry through project development, design and construction, research and development, plant management, and marketing. The 20-year old company currently operates 25 production facilities in the United States with one more under construction. The company produces and markets more than 1.47 billion gallons of ethanol annually.
The POET Biorefining facilities located in Glenville, Hanlontown, Preston, Lake Crystal, and Bingham Lake, Minn. in conjunction with the Ethanol Promotion and Information Council (EPIC) and Dave Syverson Ford, joined together to give the Devries family a brand new F150 crew cab flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) valued at nearly $36,000 on Tuesday, October 7, 2008 during the filming of the show.
All levels of ethanol-infused fuel emit less carbon monoxide and other greenhouse emissions than standard fuel and meet EPA requirements. However, the higher levels of ethanol available through mid-level blends offer more impressive results. Research is finding that using the ideal ethanol blend for a given vehicle dramatically reduces emissions.Not only is ethanol generally less expensive than regular gasoline, but it has been shown to increase the gas mileage many non-flex and flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) obtain. Since these alternative fuels are compatible with many of today's vehicles, soon consumers will forego a trip to their local car dealership to save money at the pump... using these new mid-level ethanol blends will mean paying less to drive farther.
For vehicles with current design flexible fuel engines, fuel economy (measured as miles per gallon (MPG), or liters per 100km) is directly proportional to energy content. Ethanol contains approx. 34% less energy per gallon than gasoline, and therefore will get 34% fewer miles per gallon. For E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline), the effect is small (~3%) when compared to conventional gasoline, and even smaller (1-2%) when compared to oxygenated and reformulated blends. However, for E85 (85% ethanol), the effect becomes significant. E85 will produce approximately 27% lower mileage than gasoline, and will require more frequent refueling. Actual performance may vary depending on the vehicle.
Fuel system design must be compatible with the percent of ethanol permitted. All current production spark ignition vehicles are designed to be compatible with up to 10% ethanol. Pure ethanol reacts with or dissolves certain rubber and plastic materials and must not be used in fuel systems that are not designed for it.
Pure ethanol has a much higher octane rating (116 AKI, 129 RON) than ordinary gasoline (86/87 AKI, 91/92 RON), allowing higher compression ratio and different spark timing for improved performance. To change a pure-gasoline-fueled car into a pure-ethanol-fueled car, larger carburetor jets (about 30-40% larger by area), or fuel injectors are needed. (Methanol requires an even larger increase in area, to roughly 50% larger.)
In many countries cars are mandated to run on mixtures of ethanol. Brazil requires cars be suitable for a 25% ethanol blend, and has required various mixtures between 22% and 25% ethanol. The United States allows up to 10% blends, and some states require this (or a smaller amount) in all gasoline sold. Other countries have adopted their own requirements. Because of this requirement it is speculated that all cars can run blends up to about 30% (so that manufactures do not have to stock parts incompatible with ethanol next to parts compatible), but it is not known if this is true.
Sunday, October 5, 2008
|The Paris Motor Show will take place from 4 to 19 October 2008.|
|The Paris Motor Show will open : |
Tuesday to Friday : 10am - 10pm
Saturday to monday 10am - 8pm
Tickets at the entrance :
Ticket (more 18 years old) : 12€
Ticket child age of 10 to 18 : 6 €
Children under age of 10 : free
Works council group (from 15 tickets) : 10€ / ticket
Tickets availables from 4 to 19 october 2008, one day entry pass.
and the events:
|“Electric vehicle” trial track: Sign up at the stand of one of the participating brands and get in the driving seat of an electricity-powered car for a spin on the track, and check out a new, cleaner and quieter way to drive. |
Mitsubishi - Hall 3
Smart - Hall 1
Ecologic Action - Hall 3
SCVE - Hall 3
|Disney Pixar Cars event: The celebrated animation firm has chosen our show as the venue in Paris for its European roadshow. Youngsters and parents alike will have an opportunity to be photographed with Lightning McQueen, Sally and Mater, the world-famous, life-size stars of the blockbuster Cars. Loads of prizes and merchandising to be won. Terrace D4 (between Halls 4 and 8).|
|Special exhibition: “Taxis from around the world”: Escape to Hall 8 to check out a splendid collection of 40 taxis from over 20 countries, from the historical “Taxi de la Marne”, to the celebrated London cab, the exotic tuk-tuk from Thailand, a yellow taxi from the Big Apple, the Toyota Crown from Tokyo with its gloved taxi drivers, through to the PSA taxi of the future brimming with multimedia features. Enjoy your trip!|
|Concierge service & Tourist info: Do you need a hotel room, info about Paris or help with booking a train or renting a car? Organised with the Paris regional committee, staff will be on hand at stand No. 104 in Hall 2/2, to give information and help you get organised.|
Electric karting track: Organised with the FFSA (The French Motor Sports Federation), an indoor electric karting track is available for youngsters aged 14 to 22 in Hall 7/1 from 11.00 am to 7.00 pm.
X BOX event: Are you mad about video games? You want thrills without spills? Come to the X Box 360 stand in Hall 2/1. Loads of prizes to be won.
Children’s day-care unit: Organised in partnership with Disney Pixar. Drop off your children aged 4 to 10 for completely safe, free day-care from 11.00 am to 7.00 pm, in Hall 2/2. A baby-care area is also available.
more information: http://www.mondialautomobile.com
Monday, September 29, 2008
A car key or an automobile key is a key used to open and/or start an automobile, often identified with the logo of the car company at the head. Modern key designs are usually symmetrical, and some use grooves on both sides, rather than a cut edge, to actuate the lock. It has multiple uses for the automobile with which it was sold. A car key can open the doors, as well as start the ignition, open the glove compartment and also open the trunk (boot) of the car. Some cars come with an additional key known as a valet key that starts the ignition and opens the drivers side door but prevents the valet from gaining access to valuables that are located in the trunk or the glove box. Some valet keys, particularly those to high-performance vehicles, go so far as to restrict the engine's power output to prevent joyriding. Recently, features such as coded immobilizers have been implemented in newer vehicles. More sophisticated systems make ignition dependent on electronic devices, rather than the mechanical keyswitch. Ignition switches/locks are combined with security locking of the steering column (in many modern vehicles) or the gear lever (Saab Automobile). In the latter, the switch is between the seats, preventing damage to the driver's knee in the event of a collision.Mercedes-Benz uses a key that, rather than have a cut metal piece to start the car, uses an encoded infrared beam that communicates with the car's computer. If the codes match, the car can be started. These keys can be expensive to replace, if lost, and can cost up to US$400. Some car manufacturers like Land Rover and Volkswagen use a 'switchblade' key where the key is spring-loaded out of the fob when a button is pressed. This eliminates the need for a separate key fob. This type of key has also been known to be confiscated by airport security officials.
Saturday, September 20, 2008
There are two main forms: stage rallies and road rallies. Since the 1960s, stage rallies have been the professional branch of the sport. They are based on straightforward speed over stretches of road closed to other traffic. These may vary from asphalt mountain passes to rough forest tracks, from ice and snow to desert sand, each chosen to provide an enjoyable challenge for the crew and a test of the car's performance and reliability.
The entertaining and unpredictable nature of the stages, and the fact that the vehicles are in some cases closely related to road cars, means that the bigger events draw massive spectator interest, especially in Europe, Asia and Oceania.
Road rallies are the original form, held on highways open to normal traffic, where the emphasis is not on outright speed but on accurate timekeeping and navigation and on vehicle reliability, often on difficult roads and over long distances. They are now primarily amateur events. There are several types of road rallies testing accuracy, navigation or problem solving. Some common types are: Regularity rally or a Time-Speed-Distance rally (also TSD rally, testing ability to stay on track and on time), others are Monte-Carlo styles (Monte Carlo, Pan Am, Pan Carlo, Continental) rally (testing navigation and timing), and various Gimmick rally types (testing logic and observation).
Many early rallies were called trials, and a few still are, although this term is now mainly applied to the specialist form of motor sport of climbing as far as you can up steep and slippery hills. And many meets or assemblies of car enthusiasts and their vehicles are still called rallies, even if they involve merely the task of getting there (often on a trailer).Rallying is a very popular sport at the "grass roots" of motorsport—that is, motor clubs. Individuals interested in becoming involved in rallying are encouraged to join their local automotive clubs. Club rallies (e.g. road rallies or regularity rallies) are usually run on public roads with an emphasis on navigation and teamwork. These skills are important fundamentals required for anyone who wishes to progress to higher-level events.
Rally is also unique in its choice of where and when to race. Rallies take place on all surfaces and in all conditions: asphalt (tarmac), gravel, or snow and ice, sometimes more than one in a single rally, depending on the course and event. Rallies are also run every month of the year, in every climate, bitter cold to monsoon rain. This contributes to the notion of top rally drivers as some of the best car control experts in the world. As a result of the drivers not knowing exactly what lies ahead, the lower traction available on dirt roads, and the driving characteristics of small cars, the drivers are much less visibly smooth than circuit racers, regularly sending the car literally flying over bumps, and sliding the cars out of corners.
A typical rally course consists of a sequence of relatively short (up to about 50km/30mi), timed "special stages" where the actual competition takes place, and untimed "transport stages" where the rally cars must be driven under their own power to the next competitive stage within a generous time limit. Rally cars are thus unlike virtually any other top-line racing cars in that they retain the ability to run at normal driving speeds, and indeed are registered for street travel. Some events contain "super special stages" where two competing cars set off on two parallel tracks (often small enough to fit in a football stadium), giving the illusion they are circuit racing head to head. These stages, ridiculed by many purists, seem increasingly popular with event organizers. Run over a day, a weekend, or more, the winner of the event has the lowest combined special and super special stage times. Given the short distances of super special stages compared to the regular special stages and consequent near-identical times for the frontrunning cars, it is very rare for these spectator-oriented stages to decide rally results, though it is a well-known axiom that a team can't win the rally at the super special, but they can certainly lose it.
Kawasaki Ninja Indonesia (KNI) is a community communication club or individual 'Ninja Bikers' all of Indonesia. Born at JAMBORE Kawasaki Ninja Indonesia first time in Yogyakarta at 27 May 2006. Have member like
BANGKA RR COMMUNITY
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you can join at this Community from visit www.kni.or.id
that's of great one bikers community in indonesia.
Sunday, September 7, 2008
Toyota insiders recognize that, to go up against established sports cars, their entry needs a compelling differentiating quality. "We want to do something original," says Hunter. "We asked ourselves, 'What can we do that no one else can do?' The answer was a hybrid." The FT-HS is a hybrid sports car--the name stands for Future Toyota Hybrid Sports. Its powertrain marries a 3.5-liter V-6 with a new-generation hybrid system to provide a combined output of some 400 hp driving the rear wheels. The transmission would be an evolution of Toyota's current planetary CVT with discrete ratios selected via paddles.
It's rumored that the upcoming Lexus LF-A sports car also could offer a hybrid powertrain (in conjunction with a conventional V-8 or V-10), but the FT-HS doesn't share the platform of the Lexus. Size-wise, the two-plus-two is almost an exact overlay of the Nissan 350Z, a car that would be an obvious competitor, although, if you take the Supra's price at the time of its departure ($40,000) as a ballpark starting figure, the Toyota would be considerably more expensive.
The FT-HS would be dramatically cheaper than its performance targets, however, which include the Porsche 911, the Ferrari F430, and the Chevy Corvette. At this early stage, Toyota is sharing only one performance target: 0 to 60 mph in four seconds. This while providing fuel economy in the mid-20s. Toyota concept planner Chiharu Tamura says the company aims to provide both on-road and on-track ability in the FT-HS. The latter comes in part from a more potent regenerative braking system, which would capture more braking energy than Toyota's current hybrid system and would make that energy available for propulsion more quickly.
Despite the obvious weight penalty of a hybrid's battery pack, the hybrid performance concept has more credibility than perhaps even Calty realizes: FIA president Max Mosley continues to discuss fitting regenerative braking and energy storage devices to Formula 1 cars by the end of the decade.
As with the powertrain, the goal of the design was to be unique. Again, Toyota took inspiration from its hybrids, namely the iconic Prius's peaked-roof profile. That triangular theme repeats itself throughout the FT-HS's dramatically creased exterior and into its cabin as well. The FT-HS further advertises its hybrid powertrain with its peek-a-boo hood, which features a hole through which one sees the engine cover with its Hybrid Synergy Drive logo. Calty's Erwin Lui likens it to the shaker hood scoops of an earlier era. Another styling element that relates to the hybrid system are the flying buttress C-pillars, which are similar to those of the Ferrari 599GTB. Here, they direct cooling air to the car's rear-mounted battery pack.
Like every other concept car, the FT-HS incorporates a number of gee-whiz features. The most obvious is the roof. A large, opaque panel slides rearward, like Porsche's 911 Targa, but it then pivots down to allow visibility to the rear. The two-plus-two becomes a two-place sports car when the roof is open.
photo= "2007 Toyota Ft Hs Concept "
Vehicle insurance (also known as auto insurance, car insurance, or motor insurance) is insurance purchased for cars, trucks, and other vehicles. Its primary use is to provide protection against losses incurred as a result of traffic accidents and against liability that could be incurred in an accident.
In many jurisdictions it is compulsory to have vehicle insurance before using or keeping a motor vehicle on public roads. Most jurisdictions relate insurance to both the car and the driver, however the degree of each varies greatly.
A 1994 study by Jeremy Jackson and Roger Blackman showed, consistent with the risk homeostasis theory, that increased accident costs caused large and significant reductions in accident frequencies.
In South Australia, Third Party Personal insurance from the State Government Insurance Corporation (SGIC) is included in the licence registration fee for people over 16.
In Victoria, Third Party Personal insurance from the Transport Accident Commission is similarly included, through a levy, in the vehicle registration fee.
Several Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec) provide a public auto insurance system while in the rest of the country insurance is provided privately. Basic auto insurance is mandatory throughout Canada with each province's government determining which benefits are included as minimum required auto insurance coverage and which benefits are options available for those seeking additional coverage. Accident benefits coverage is mandatory everywhere except for Newfoundland and Labrador. All provinces in Canada have some form of no-fault insurance available to accident victims. The difference from province to province is the extent to which tort or no-fault is emphasized. Typically, coverage against loss of or damage to the driver's own vehicle is optional - one notable exception to this is in Saskatchewan, where SGI provides collision coverage (less than a $700 deductible, such as a collision damage waiver) as part of its basic insurance policy. In Saskatchewan, residents have the option to have their auto insurance through a tort system but less than 0.5% of the population have taken this option.
South Africa allocates a percentage of the money from petrol into the Road Accidents Fund, which goes towards compensating third parties in accidents.
In 1930, the UK government introduced a law that required every person who used a vehicle on the road to have at least third party personal injury insurance.
Today UK law is defined by The Road Traffic Act 1988, which was last modified in 1991. The act requires that some motorists either be insured, have a security, or have made a specified deposit (£500,000 as of 1991) with the Accountant General of the Supreme Court, against their liability for injuries to others (including passengers) and for damage to other persons' property resulting from use of a vehicle on a public road or in other public places.
The minimum level of insurance cover commonly available and which satisfies the requirement of the act is called third party only insurance. The level of cover provided by Third party only insurance is basic but does exceed the requirements of the act.
Road Traffic Act Only Insurance is not the same as Third Party Only Insurance and thankfully is not often sold. It provides the very minimum cover to satisfy the requirements of the act. For example Road Traffic Act Only Insurance has a limit of £250,000 for damage to third party property and does not cover emergency treatment fees. Third party insurance has a far greater limit for third party property damage and will cover emergency treatment fees.
It is an offence to drive your car, or allow others to drive it, without at least third party insurance whilst on the public highway (or public place Section 143(1)(a) RTA 1988 as amended 1991); however, no such legislation applies on private land.
Vehicles which are exempted by the act, from the requirement to be covered, include those owned by certain councils and local authorities, national park authorities, education authorities, police authorities, fire authorities, heath service bodies and security services.
The insurance certificate or cover note issued by the insurance company constitutes legal evidence that the vehicle specified on the document is indeed insured. The law says that an authorised person, such as the police, may require a driver to produce an insurance certificate for inspection. If the driver cannot show the document immediately on request, then the driver will usually be issued a HORT/1 with seven days, as of midnight of the date of issue, to take a valid insurance certificate (and usually other driving documents as well) to a police station of the driver's choice. Failure to produce an insurance certificate is an offence.
Insurance is more expensive in Northern Ireland than in other parts of the UK.
Most motorists in the UK are required to prominently display a vehicle licence (tax disc) on their vehicle when it is kept or driven on public roads. This helps to ensure that most people have adequate insurance on their vehicles because you are required to produce an insurance certificate when you purchase the disc. However, it is a known practice for some people to purchase insurance to gain the certificate and then to cancel the insurance and gain a full refund within the statutory 14 day cooling off period.
The Motor Insurers Bureau compensates the victims of road accidents caused by uninsured and untraced motorists. It also operates the Motor Insurance Database, which contains details of every insured vehicle in the country.
In the United States, auto insurance covering liability for injuries and property damage done to others is compulsory in most states, though enforcement of the requirement varies from state to state. The state of New Hampshire, for example, does not require motorists to carry liability insurance (the ballpark model), while in Virginia residents must pay the state a $500 annual fee per vehicle if they choose not to buy liability insurance. Penalties for not purchasing auto insurance vary by state, but often involve a substantial fine, license and/or registration suspension or revocation, as well as possible jail time in some states. Usually, the minimum required by law is third party insurance to protect third parties against the financial consequences of loss, damage or injury caused by a vehicle.
Some states, such as North Carolina, require that a driver hold liability insurance before a license can be issued.
Arizona Department of Transportation Research Project Manager John Semmens has recommended that car insurers issue license plates, and that they be held responsible for the full cost of injuries and property damages caused by their licensees under the Disneyland model. Plates would expire at the end of the insurance coverage period, and licensees would need to return their plates to their insurance office in order to receive a refund on their premiums. Vehicles driving without insurance would thus be easy to spot because they would not have license plates, or the plates would be past the marked expiration date.
from : http://en.wikipedia.org